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Campus E9.1, Room 2.09. “From Facepalm to Brain Bender: Exploring Client-Side Cross-Site Scripting.”, Backes, Michael, Thorsten Holz, Christian Rossow, Teemu Rytilahti, Milivoj Simeonovski, and Ben Stock. Ironically, this well-regarded software engineering practice allows us to build a scalable and precise detector that is able to quickly respond to superficial but frequent changes in EKs. This evolution has not followed a security blueprint, resulting in many classes of vulnerabilities specific to the Web. Using these components, we conducted a large-scale analysis of the Alexa top 5000. However, the Web servers themselves are only indirectly involved in the corresponding security decision. “Assessing the Impact of Script Gadgets on CSP at Scale.” In, Fass, Aurore, Michael Backes, and Ben Stock. In doing so, we find that although a large portion of all vulnerabilities have a low complexity rating, several incur a significant level of complexity and are repeatedly caused by vulnerable third-party scripts. Uncovering the insights which fueled this development bears the potential to not only gain a historical perspective on client-side Web security, but also to outline better practices going forward. Aurore Fass, Michael Backes, and Ben Stock CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security {aurore.fass,backes,stock}@cispa.saarland ABSTRACT Given the success of the Web platform, attackers have abused its main programming language, namely JavaScript, to mount differ-ent types of attacks on their victims. It is based on a frequency analysis of specific patterns, which are either predictive of benign or of malicious samples. 2013. To examine the efficiency and feasibility of our approach, we present a practical implementation based on the open source browser Chromium. One of the major disturbances for network providers in recent years have been Distributed Reflective Denial-of-Service (DRDoS) attacks. Furthermore, there is a noticeable gap in adoption speed between easy-to-deploy security headers and more involved measures such as CSP. Unfortunately, these managers operate by simply inserting the clear-text password into the document’s DOM, where it is accessible by JavaScript. In recent years, the drive-by malware space has undergone significant consolidation. In the malware field, learning-based systems have become popular to detect new malicious variants. In this paper, we present a fully automated system to detect and validate DOM-based XSS vulnerabilities, consisting of a taint-aware JavaScript engine and corresponding DOM implementation as well as a context-sensitive exploit generation approach. The downside of this practice is that such external code runs in the same context and with the same privileges as the first-party code. To improve the detection, we also combine the predictions of several modules. In this paper, we formally study the problem of inconsistencies in framing control policies across different browsers and we implement an automated policy analyzer based on our theory, which we use to assess the state of click-jacking protection on the Web. Correlating these results allows us to draw a set of overarching conclusions: Along with the dawn of JavaScript-driven applications in the early years of the millennium, the likelihood of client-side injection vulnerabilities has risen. In this study, we identified 6,167 unique vulnerabilities distributed over 480 domains, showing that 9,6% of the examined sites carry at least one DOM- based XSS problem. Open Access Media. Correlating these results allows us to draw a set of overarching conclusions: Along with the dawn of JavaScript-driven applications in the early years of the millennium, the likelihood of client-side injection vulnerabilities has risen. To examine the efficiency and feasibility of our approach, we present a practical implementation based on the open source browser Chromium. To achieve this we implemented a clone of the Waledac bot named Walowdac. “How the Web Tangled Itself: Uncovering the History of Client-Side Web (In)Security.” In, Stock, Ben, Bernd Kaiser, Stephan Pfistner, Sebastian Lekies, and Martin Johns. To understand the reasons behind this, we run a notification campaign and subsequent survey, concluding that operators have often experienced the complexity of CSP (and given up), utterly unaware of the easy-to-deploy components of CSP. Prior to that, I was a research group leader and previously postdoctoral researcher at the Center for IT-Security, Privacy and Accountability at Saarland University in the group of Michael Backes. Im Rahmen dieser Studie, konnten wir 6.167 derartige Verwundbarkeiten identifizieren, die sich auf 480 der untersuchten Anwendungen verteilen. In this paper, we build on these previous works, aiming to understand why the effects are not more significant. 2016. The Web has become highly interactive and an important driver for modern life, enabling information retrieval, social exchange, and online shopping. (2015/2016), Best German Bachelor Thesis (CAST e.V.) 2013. “25 Million Flows Later - Large-Scale Detection of DOM-Based XSS.” In, Johns, Martin, Sebastian Lekies, and Ben Stock. To ease the burden of repeated password authentication on multiple sites, modern Web browsers provide password managers, which offer to automatically complete password fields on Web pages, after the password has been stored once. This shift caused a significant increase in complexity of deployed JavaScript code and thus, a proportional growth in potential client-side vulnerabilities, with DOM-based Cross-site Scripting being a high impact representative of such security issues. Check out what Ben Stock will be attending at 25th USENIX Security Symposium. In this paper, we therefore ask the question: is deploying CSP in a secure fashion even possible without a priori knowledge of all files hosted on even a partially trusted origin?To answer this question, we investigate the severity of the findings of Lekies et al., showing real-world Web sites on which, even in the presence of CSP and without code containing such gadgets being added by the developer, an attacker can sideload libraries with known script gadgets, as long as the hosting site is whitelisted in the CSP. Given the prevalence of such nefarious scripts, the anti-virus industry has increased the focus on their detection. During that time, I was fortunate enough to join Ben Livshits and Ben Zorn at Microsoft Research in Redmond for an internship. 2020. “Assessing the Impact of Script Gadgets on CSP at Scale.” In, Calzavara, Stefano, Sebastian Roth, Alvise Rabitti, Michael Backes, and Ben Stock. Today, the most common source of drive-by downloads are socalled exploit kits (EKs). In such an attack, the attacker spoofs the IP address of a victim and sent a flood of tiny packets to vulnerable services which then respond with much larger replies to the victim. To counter these attacks, the browser vendors introduced countermeasures, such as DNS Pinning, to mitigate the attack. “Precise Client-Side Protection against DOM-Based Cross-Site Scripting.” In, Johns, Martin, Sebastian Lekies, and Ben Stock. Our proposed approach has a low false positive rate and robustly protects against DOM-based XSS exploits. Even though the analysis is entirely static, it yields a high detection accuracy of almost 99.5% and has a low false-negative rate of 0.54%. Therefore, in this paper, we present a large-scale study to gain insight into these causes. Michael Backes CISPA - Scientific Director and Chairman of the Executive Board. Large-scale discovery of thousands of vulnerable Web sites has become a frequent event, thanks to recent advances in security research and the rise in maturity of Internet-wide scanning tools. However, our exploration of alternative communication channels did not suggest a more promising medium. 2009. To this end, we analyze a set of 1,273 real-world vulnerabilities contained on the Alexa Top 10k domains using a specifically designed architecture, consisting of an infrastructure which allows us to persist and replay vulnerabilities to ensure a sound analysis. From the security perspective, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is one of the most nefarious attacks against Web clients. It implements the communication features of Waledac but does not cause any harm, i.e., no spam emails are sent and no other commands are executed. In diesem Beitrag stellen wir eine umfassende Studie vor, in der wir, mittels eines voll-automatisierten Ansatzes, die fuehrenden 5000 Webseiten des Alexa Indexes auf DOM-basiertes XSS untersucht haben. In general, cross-domain access to such sensitive resources is prevented by the Same-Origin Policy. Cornelius König UDS - Professor für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie. Session Chair: Ben Stock (CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security) The Boon and Bane of Cross-Signing: Shedding Light on a Common Practice in Public Key Infrastructures Jens Hiller (RWTH Aachen University); Johanna Amann (ICSI, Corelight, LBNL); Oliver Hohlfeld (Brandenburg University of … Motivated by this finding, we propose ScriptProtect, a non-intrusive transparent protective measure to address security issues introduced by external script resources. (2009/2010). Based on data sets of benign and spoofed NTP requests, we find that a TTL-based defense could block over 75% of spoofed traffic, while allowing 85% of benign traffic to pass. We find that more than 8% of them have unfiltered data flows from persistent storages to a dangerous sink, which showcases the developers’ inherent trust in the integrity of storage content. Ben Stock CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security Abstract Click-jacking protection on the modern Web is commonly enforced via client-side security mechanisms for framing control, like the X-Frame-Options header (XFO) and Con-tent Security Policy (CSP). Our analysis shows that while the JavaScript delivered by kits varies greatly, the unpacked code varies much less, due to the kits authors’ code reuse between versions. Our experiments show that Kizzle produces high-accuracy signatures. To achieve this performance, however, such an approach must allow for a tolerance of +/-2 hops. “Walowdac-Analysis of a Peer-to-Peer Botnet.” In, Security Research Group of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Busy Beaver Teaching Award for lecture "Foundations of Cybersecurity 1" at Saarland University (Winter Term 2018/2019), Busy Beaver Teaching Award for lecture "Web Security" at Saarland University (Summer Term 2018), Finalist for Best Dissertation Award (CAST e.V.) 2019. In this paper, we present an interprocedural analysis technique for PHP applications based on code property graphs that scales well to large amounts of code and is highly adaptable in its nature. Ben Stock Tenure-Track Faculty at CISPA Helmholtz Center (i.G.) Based on the observable characteristics of the vulnerable JavaScript, we derive a set of metrics to measure the complexity of each flaw. Allerdings wird XSS primaer als ein server-seitiges Problem wahrgenommen, motiviert durch das Offenlegen von zahlreichen entsprechenden XSS-Schwachstellen. With the help of this tool we observed a minimum daily population of 55,000 Waledac bots and a total of roughly 390,000 infected machines throughout the world. Thus, it effectively removes the root-cause of Client-Side XSS without affecting first-party code in this respective. We show the pitfalls of email-based communications, such as the impact of anti-spam filters, the lack of trust by recipients, and hesitations to fix vulnerabilities despite awareness. Led by the idea that the attacker cannot fabricate the number of hops between the amplifier and the victim, Hop Count Filtering (HCF) mechanisms that analyze the Time to Live of incoming packets have been proposed as a solution. To that end, we examined the code and header information of the most important Web sites for each year between 1997 and 2016, amounting to 659,710 different analyzed Web documents. The Content Security Policy (CSP) mechanism was developed as a mitigation against script injection attacks in 2010. Before joining CISPA, I was a PhD student and research fellow at the Security Research Group of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg, supervised by Felix Freiling. In practice, JStap outperforms existing systems, which we reimplemented and tested on our dataset totaling over 270,000 samples. But there is also no evidence that the usage of the easy-to- deploy techniques reflects on other security areas. 2018. “Didn’t You Hear Me? Address. Furthermore, we analyze the fundamental problem which allows DNS Rebinding to work in the first place: The SOP’s main purpose is to ensure security boundaries of Web servers. Led by the idea that the attacker cannot fabricate the number of hops between the amplifier and the victim, Hop Count Filtering (HCF) mechanisms that analyze the Time to Live of incoming packets have been proposed as a solution. Uncovering the insights which fueled this development bears the potential to not only gain a historical perspective on client-side Web security, but also to outline better practices going forward. It implements the communication features of Waledac but does not cause any harm, i.e., no spam emails are sent and no other commands are executed. Although studies have shown that at least one in ten Web pages contains a client-side XSS vulnerability, the prevalent causes for this class of Cross-Site Scripting have not been studied in depth. In this paper, we systematically examine the feasibility and efficacy of large-scale notification campaigns. Though these client-side security mechanisms are certainly useful and successful, delegating protection to web browsers opens room for inconsistencies in the security guarantees offered to users of different browsers. We instead propose HideNoSeek, a novel and generic camouflage attack, which evades the entire class of detectors based on syntactic features, without needing any information about the system it is trying to evade. 2015. Tenure-Track Faculty. — Towards More Successful Web Vulnerability Notifications.” In, Stock, Ben, Giancarlo Pellegrino, and Christian Rossow. This exemption allows an adversary to import and execute dynamically generated scripts while a user visits an attacker-controlled Web site. Cross-site Scripting (XSS) ist eine weit verbreitete Verwundbarkeitsklasse in Web-Anwendungen und kann sowohl von server-seitigem als auch von client-seitigem Code verursacht werden. However, as it offloads the work to the user’s browser, it can be used to engage in malicious activities such as Crypto-Mining, Drive-by-Download attacks, or redirections to web sites hosting malicious software. Javascript Detection. ” in, Lekies, Sebastian Lekies, and Ben Zorn at Microsoft research in Redmond for internship... We implemented a clone of the Waledac botnet, which can be deployed... Mind, we present a novel DNS Rebinding attacks, circumventing all currently deployed browser-based defense measures further. Socalled exploit kits Scripting filters rely on static analyses to quickly process the vast majority of samples for example mails. Thus propose recommendations for Web developers and browser vendors introduced countermeasures, such an approach must allow for a user... Propose recommendations for Web developers and browser vendors introduced countermeasures, such an approach must allow a... 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